What are PCOS?

Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a metabolic disorder that affect every 1 out of  10 females at reproductive age due to imbalance of male hormone androgen, numerous fluid filled cyst form in the ovaries that produce male androgen that affect the female menstrual cycle and physical and mental changes appearing due to PCOS.



Major causes of PCOS:

  1. High levels of male hormone released from ovaries that lower the level of estrogen, the key hormone responsible for releasing of eggs and for egg maturation which disrupt the menstrual cycle.
  2. Environmental factors and genes also contribute to PCOS.
  3. Insulin resistance in PCOS associated with 70% of women means when your body does not utilise insulin properly and due to excessive insulin level produced by ovaries that triggers to produce more male hormone.


What is the percentage of PCOS in women?

The prevalence of PCOS at global level is estimated at about 6% and 26%. It affects 4-20% of women of reproductive age.

Factors that causes PCOS:

  1.   Insulin resistance appears at PCOS when your body cell becomes resistant to insulin ultimately the body glucose level increases and more insulin produced due to which androgen production increases that affect the ovulation cycle.
  2.   Inflammation is linked to women who have PCOS that stimulate the ovaries to produce androgen .
  3.   Hereditary factors also play a major role in PCOS.
  4.   Excess male hormone androgen resulting in hirsutism and acne.

What is insulin resistant?

When your body cell does not respond well to insulin due to which pancreas abnormally produce insulin and your cell does not store glucose in storage cells e.g fat, liver and muscles cells.

In normal condition insulin helps to break down food sources into glucose that provide energy to your body to perform various functions.

When it enters the pancreas from the bloodstream it signals to release insulin.

It helps the glucose to enter the storage cells and use it when energy depletes out.

It signals the pancreas to stop producing insulin when glucose is deposited on storage cells .

There are several factors that contribute to insulin resistant:

When your cells cannot work efficiently to store glucose result in over production of insulin due to elevated levels of blood glucose. This is called insulin resistant.

Major factors involved in insulin resistant:

  1.       obesity
  2.       heart diseases
  3.       metabolic disorders
  4.       polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Is insulin resistant and diabetes the same thing?

  •         Insulin resistance can be developed to anyone at any age temporarily and chronically. If it is not treated or controlled it leads to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.
  •         Prediabetes occurs when your body produces more glucose than normal but not at a much higher range that is considered to be diabetic.
  •         Type 2 diabetes occurs when your pancreatic cell does not make enough insulin that is essential for controlling blood glucose level.
  •         Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which B – cell is impaired and fails to make insulin.

Things you should do to overcome insulin resistant:

  1.   Exercise and getting physically active help to enter the blood glucose deposited into muscles, fats and liver cells without the need of insulin to ultimately control the level of blood glucose.
  2.   Those who have excessive fat and who take food rich in fats and carbohydrates that worsen the insulin resistance. Weight loss helps you to make insulin sensitive.
  3.   Although there is no medication available for insulin resistance, there are medicines that help to treat diabetes also available that used to treat the insulin resistance e.g GLUCOPHAGE/METFORMIN.

Is metformin/glucophage safe to use in PCOS?

Metformin is usually prescribed to patients who have type 2 diabetes. But it can also be given to patients who have insulin resistance in PCOS by absorbing blood glucose in cells and decreasing the blood glucose level. It can also lower the LDL cholesterol and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. It regulates the menstrual cycle and enhances the chances of getting pregnant. It control the gestational diabetes and prevent from miscarriage. It is usually given at 500mg to 2550 mg daily.



Role  of myoinositol and folic acid in PCOS:

Myo inositol is a carboxylic sugar that is found in body and food. In PCOS it help to decrease insulin resistance and to decrease androgen level and regulate the menstrual cycle. It improves egg quality.

Folic acid is a vitamin that is essential for production of red blood cells , neural cells and to synthesise DNA. It plays a key role in the growth of a healthy foetus. It also plays a major role in increasing fertility. The combination of myoinositol and folic acid improve the oocyte quality

Who gets PCOS?

PCOS is a condition that can happen at any age after puberty but women between 15 to 44 age or at the child bearing age experienced PCOS mostly and your risk increases if you are obese or if this PCOS is hereditary.

What is ovarian cyst?

Ovarian cyst are fluid filled sacs in ovaries. Ovaries are the regions in the uterus that produce hormones and hold the eggs. Sometimes ovarian cysts are harmless and go on their own after a certain time but sometimes it causes pain, bleeding.

Types of cyst:

The most common type of cyst is functional cyst and they occur during the menstrual cycle and it is benign.

Pathological cysts may be cancerous and not related to the menstrual cycle.

Follicle cyst are those that appear during menstruation  and it has no symptoms and alleviates in 1-3 months.

Corpus luteum  cyst: the sac does not shrink the way they have to shrink to release the egg. It bent the ovary causing pain and bleeding and diminished within weeks.

Endometriomas: when endometrial-like tissue develops outside the womb.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome: small fluid filled sac deposited inside the ovaries cause pain and fertility problems.


  1.   Weight loss helps in controlling PCOS symptoms and to decrease the risk of other diseases like metabolic disorders, diabetes and heart disease.
  2.   Eating healthy food:

Skip the food rich in carbohydrate and sugar include




White bread

White rice




Add those carbohydrates

Brown rice

Brown bread

Whole grains

3 .Exercise regularly lower insulin level and help to maintain sugar level

  1. nutritional supplements are beneficial in control PCOS  that include omega 3 , chromium, selenium, vitamin D, calcium,  vitamin B complex and inositol
  2. Herbal products also manage PCOS cimicifuga racemosa is the most effective herb in managing irregular periods and fertility problems.
  3. Cannabidiol oil derived from Cannabis sativa plant helps in PCOS with patients who have anxiety and insomnia.
  4. Switch to probiotics good bacteria help to maintain gut immunity and reduces the chances of obesity , heart disease and diabetes





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